harm reduction techniques

Harm Reduction Techniques For Drug Addiction

by Sep 17, 2021trauma0 comments

Harm reduction techniques refer to policies, efforts, and practices to reduce the adverse health, social, and economic effects of substance addiction. The goal of harm reduction is precisely reducing rather than eradicating the adverse effects of substance usage.

Harm reduction recognizes that many people will continue to abuse drugs and participate in other risky behaviors despite prevention measures. It also acknowledges that many people are either unwilling or unable to seek help.

Heroin And Other Opioids

Harm reduction techniques for heroin and other opioids aim to lessen the danger of overdose and the spread of bloodborne viruses that come with needle drug use. It also entails referring heroin and opiate addicts for rehab and medical attention.

Opioids

A range of strategies and programs are used to reduce the harm caused by heroin and opioids, including:

  • Injection sites are medically monitored locations dedicated to preventing overdoses and the spread of infectious diseases among people who use heroin and other injectable drugs. Other programs include injection safety education, medical care and counseling, and treatment referrals. Employees do not supply medications to users, and they do not inject them. The locations of the sites are in Europe, Australia, and Canada. According to Time magazine, Philadelphia could be the first city in the United States to establish an injection facility, with Seattle, San Francisco, Ithaca, and Denver also exploring it.
  • Community-based needle exchange programs (NEPs) distribute free sterilized needles and syringes. Syringe services programs (SSP) or needle-syringe programs are other names for them (NSP).
  • Treatment programs for opioid addiction (OTP). These programs supply prescription drugs and provide comprehensive treatment for opioid addiction, including counseling and other rehabilitative methods. 

The medications used in MAT are:

  • One of the most widely prescribed opioid addiction therapies is methadone. It comes in a variety of forms, but many patients prefer to take it as a liquid. It’s a long-acting anti-cravings and anti-withdrawal medication. Methadone is only available at approved.

 Outpatient Treatment Programs (OTPs)

  • Buprenorphine: This is a drug taken once a day in an orally disintegrating pill or implant. 
  • Naltrexone: This prescription works by blocking the effects of opioids, allowing you to get a lower high if you take them. If you limit the rewarding benefits of opioids, it may be simpler for you to stop using them. You should wait 7-10 days after your last opioid usage to start taking it because it can trigger or worsen withdrawal. It’s also available as an extended-release injectable with a 30-day duration.
  • Naloxone: This is an opioid antagonist medicine that the FDA has licensed for use in the treatment of overdoses. Naloxone works by blocking opioid receptor sites and restoring breathing. It’s available as an injectable, a nasal spray, and an auto-injectable (all of which require professional training). In many states, naloxone is a prescription medicine, while in others, it can be bought without a prescription at a pharmacy. People who use heroin or other opioids (and their family) should consider storing naloxone in their homes in case of an overdose.

Alcohol

Harm reduction alcohol strategy seeks to reduce the harm caused by alcohol consumption and abuse, which includes a higher risk of cancer, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, stomach difficulties, mental health concerns, and injuries and accidents, in addition to the potential development of an alcohol use disorder. The following are some examples of alcohol damage reduction programs and practices:

  • HAMS stands for Harm Reduction, Abstinence, and Moderation Support and is a free peer support group. This group’s goal is to meet people “where they are,” reduce the negative impacts of alcohol, and assist people in changing their drinking habits. People determine their objectives, whether it is to abstain from alcohol or to reduce consumption. HAMS employs 17 aspects to assist people in developing and selecting goals; they can complete the elements in any order and quit at any time.
  • Managed alcohol programs: MAPs are intended to reduce the harm caused by chronic alcohol addiction in the homeless population. MAPs deliver tiny, consistent dosages of alcohol as well as residence in a treatment center. The amount of alcohol administered is insufficient to cause intoxication, but it aids in preventing withdrawal. 
  • Naltrexone is a drug that may help people regulate their drinking by reducing some of the enjoyable benefits of alcohol consumption and maybe decreasing cravings. Harm reduction alcohol strategies tend to be successful. 

Designated driver programs are services provided by for-profit and nonprofit groups to assist you and your vehicle safely get home if you are intoxicated.

Tips for safer drinking include:

  • Before you start drinking, give someone the keys to your automobile.
  • Before drinking, eat something and remain hydrated.
  • Taking vitamins to compensate those lost due to alcohol consumption
  • Going out with a friend who can keep an eye on your drinking and conduct
  • Taking condoms with you when you go out to drink. Making at least one abstinence day a week a priority
  • Reducing the number of days per week or month that you drink

Harm Reduction Techniques vs. Abstinence 

When treating substance use disorders, treatment providers follow one of two schools of thought: abstinence or harm reduction alcohol strategies. When selecting a therapy provider, clients and their families may wonder, “Which approach is better?”. That’s a tough one to answer because each ideology has its own set of advantages.

As a result, it’s critical to be well-versed in both ideologies before deciding which strategy is best for you. 

Abstinence-Based Approach Utilizing Harm Reduction Techniques

Abstinence is the most popular method of addiction treatment. Clients must entirely refrain from drugs and alcohol in an abstinence-based approach.

This strategy has a lot of merits. Substance abuse lowers a person’s inhibitions and makes it difficult for them to make intelligent decisions. 

Furthermore, persons who do not follow an abstinence-based rehabilitation plan may develop an addiction to another substance. For example, if an opioid use disorder does not commit to total abstinence from opioids, they may acquire an alcohol use disorder.

Harm Reduction Techniques Model Of Treatment

The harm reduction paradigm places a greater emphasis on minimizing the negative repercussions of a person’s substance use rather than complete abstinence. This model acknowledges that drug use is complicated and that abstinence may not be the best option for everyone. Harm reduction alcohol strategies try to lessen adverse outcomes such as:

  • Death hazard
  • Complications in medicine
  • Financial ramifications
  • Legal ramifications
  • Strain in a relationship

Some people with substance abuse problems have difficulty recognizing that their drinking or drug usage is a problem. They may, however, be able to confess that they are dealing with medical, financial, or relationship issues.

Therapists might address other difficulties in their clients’ lives in the early phases of treatment and then encourage them to confront their substance use once the therapeutic bond has been created.

Similarly, some persons with substance use problems are prepared to exercise moderation rather than entirely cease using drugs and alcohol. Clients may be more effective in engaging with a harm reduction provider in certain situations.

Stimulants

Like those for other substances, stimulant harm reduction techniques strive to meet users where they are, provide drug education, and prevent harm related to stimulant use, such as dental problems, STDs, psychosis, and poor hygiene.

Stimulants

 

The following are some of the services provided by these harm reduction strategies. Many of these services are delivered through mobile units and outreach programs.

  • Safer injecting supplies (such as the distribution of sterile injecting equipment) and correct information on how to utilize injecting supplies properly
  • Treatment referrals and information on how to get alternative treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing
  • Brushes and toothpaste, as well as hygiene education and tools, are available.
  • Water, juice, and nutritious meals, especially for individuals who are homeless or poor.
  • We provide an adequate dose of benzodiazepines or antipsychotic medicine to a person experiencing delusions, paranoia, anxiety, or hallucinations.

The following are some suggestions for reducing harm dependent on the method of use:

  • It’s critical to understand where your medications come from (if swallowing tablet-form stimulants). Make your cocktail if you combine them with a drink.
  • When using any inspiration intranasally, finely chop the pills (if snorting tablet-form stimulants) and avoid sharing straws.
  • Using your pipe and calculating how much you’ll need ahead of time (smoking)
  • All things to consider are using a top-use condom, clean water to dissolve the meth, and avoiding sharing “booty bump” syringes.
  • Using a stem made of your glass (hot railing)
  • Using sterile water for mixing, making sure to utilize clean cotton balls, rotating and cleaning injection sites, and slamming/injecting with a clean needle

How Effective Is Drug Education In Reducing Drug Abuse?

A lot of research on the effectiveness of harm reduction techniques for certain substances has been conducted.

Harm Reduction Technique Studies

  • Safe injection places. Studies have demonstrated that safe injection sites can reduce drug overdose deaths, decrease public drug usage, and improve community health by reducing bloodborne disease transmission. For example, according to a 2011 research published in The Lancet, overdose deaths in Vancouver reduced by 35% two years after the safe injection site opened.
  • Methadone use is linked to higher treatment adherence, lower opioid use in people with opioid addiction, and lower HIV risk behaviors, mortality, and crime.
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse studied the effectiveness of buprenorphine and naloxone in those addicted to opioids. It was discovered that half of those who started MAT were abstinent 18 months later. After 3.5 years, the percentage of abstinent persons had risen to 61%, with less than 10% meeting the criteria for opioid use disorder (addiction).
  • Alcohol treatment programs that are carefully monitored. MAPS is booming in several modest investigations. According to research, residents of a MAP, for example, had more minor interactions with the police and emergency services. According to another study published in the Harm Reduction Journal, people in MAPs had fewer hospital admissions, detox treatments, and arrests.
  • For the treatment of alcoholism, naltrexone is used. According to a study published in the journal Substance Abuse, extended-release naltrexone paired with harm reduction counseling was beneficial in lowering alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in homeless alcoholics.

Criticisms

Critics claim that drugs used in medication-assisted therapy, such as buprenorphine, can be addictive in and of themselves, causing a person to remain addicted to opioids (substituting one drug for another). They further say that the drugs could be diverted and sold on the illegal market.

According to different studies, injection sites boost users’ health while not increasing drug trafficking or criminality. Nonetheless, researchers in Vancouver, Canada, discovered that an injection site led to a considerable rise in the number of users seeking methadone and other addiction treatments. The question is if similar outcomes will be seen in other places, such as the United States.

Key Harm Reduction Techniques Issues

Drug Users Are Discriminated Against

DPA is trying to eliminate prejudice against drug users by lowering the stigma associated with recreational and problematic drug use and pushing for compassionate, nonjudgmental approaches to addiction.

Accidental drug overdose is the most significant cause of mortality in the United States for people under 50. By pushing pragmatic solutions and better policy at the state and federal levels.

Naloxone

Naloxone is a low-cost, FDA-approved generic drug that acts to reverse the effects of an opioid overdose while posing no danger of addiction. This drug is still unavailable to far too many people. We’re working to increase the number of people who can administer naloxone in the case of an overdose.

Laws Concerning Good Samaritans

When people who use illegal substances call 911 to report an overdose, they are generally frightened of being arrested. The best method to encourage people to seek medical care is to exempt them from drug law infractions, a strategy known as the Good Samaritan approach.

Access To Syringes

By reducing syringe sharing and offering safe disposal choices, sterile syringe access initiatives assist in reducing the risk of HIV and hepatitis C. We advocate removing regulations that criminalize syringe possession and restrict clean syringe distribution to increase access to sterile syringes.

What Is The Best Way To Reduce Drug Use In Our Country?

Why is adolescence such a crucial period for avoiding drug addiction? Early drug use, as previously indicated, increases one’s chances of being addicted. Drugs alter the brain, which can lead to addiction and other harmful consequences. As a result, preventing the use of drugs or alcohol at a young age may help to reduce these risks.

During periods of transition, the risk of drug usage skyrockets. Moving, family breakup or changing schools are all hazardous situations for a teenager. Children are often exposed to substances such as cigarettes and alcohol for the first time around this period. Teens may face increased drug availability, drug use by older teens, and drug-related social activities as they enter high school.

When students leave high school and live more independently, whether in college or as employed adults, they may be susceptible to drug use since they are no longer surrounded by the protective structure of family and school.

Adolescent development includes a certain amount of risk-taking. Although the desire to try new things and gain independence is healthy, it may also increase a teen’s propensity to experiment with drugs. People do not fully develop the portions of the brain that affect judgment and decision-making until they are in their early to mid-20s. This makes it more difficult for teenagers to estimate the risks of drug experimentation appropriately and makes them more susceptible to peer pressure.

How Do Research-based Prevention Programs Work?

According to national drug use studies, some youngsters as young as 12 or 13 are using narcotics. The ideal technique is to avoid problems in the first place.

  • These programs aim to increase protective variables while removing or reducing risk factors for drug use. The agenda can be used in various settings, including schools and homes, and are appropriate for people of all ages. Three types of programs are available:
  • In a specific location, such as a school or community, universal programs address risk and protective variables common to all children.
  • Selective programs are developed for groups of children and teenagers who have certain drug-related risk factors.

We Can Help You Recover

Harm reduction techniques are a developmentally appropriate strategy for the primary and secondary prevention of risky behavior in adolescents. 

HCPs are in an excellent position to talk to their adolescent patients about harm reduction. Adolescent surveys have shown that adolescents regard HCPs as trustworthy sources of health information. 

Recognizing the role of the adolescent in making decisions regarding their health behavior is an integral part of providing this information. By avoiding making judgments about potentially harmful behaviors, the HCP can better deliver critical risk-reduction messages.

You are aware of the devastation that addiction and drinking can cause. Please do not wait another minute if you or a loved one is fighting to find sobriety. There is assistance available. Miracles Recovery dedicated treatment specialists can assist you with any rehab-related queries you may have regarding top-rated treatment facilities. For more information, contact us now.

References

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Our team at Miracles Recovery Center in Port St. Lucie, FL is thankful every day to be able to come into work and help those struggling with addiction and substance use disorder.

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